Application of the hottest modern laser processing

2022-08-23
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The application of modern laser processing technology in the field of metal processing

since American scientist Meiman developed the first ruby laser in 1960, with the needs of the development of science and technology and economy in the world, laser technology has developed rapidly, especially in recent decades, which has also greatly promoted the wider application of laser processing technology. Compared with ordinary light, laser has four characteristics, namely, monochromaticity (single wavelength), coherence, directivity and high light intensity. The laser beam is easy to transmit, and its temporal and spatial characteristics can be controlled respectively. After focusing, a very small light spot can be obtained. The laser beam with very high power density can melt and vaporize any material, and it can also carry out precision and rapid machining in local areas. During the machining process, the input heat of the workpiece is small, the heat affected zone and the thermal deformation are small; High processing efficiency and easy to realize automation. Laser technology is a comprehensive high-tech, involving optics, mechanics, electronics and other disciplines. Similarly, laser processing equipment also involves many disciplines, which determines its high-tech and high yield. Looking at the international and domestic laser application fields, after years of research, development and improvement, Contemporary laser and laser processing technology and equipment have been quite mature, forming a series of laser processing technology. In addition, various new laser processing technologies are still emerging. From the actual application proportion in the international scope, laser processing is mainly used for cutting, welding, surface treatment, marking and drilling. Two dimensional and three-dimensional laser cutting accounts for 65% of laser applications, laser welding accounts for about 20%, laser drilling and marking accounts for 10%, and traditional experimental machines can only be inspected by experimenters, while laser surface treatment, including laser phase transformation hardening, laser cladding, laser surface alloying and laser surface melting, accounts for only about 5%. From the development and application of domestic laser processing technology More and more users have realized the unique excellent performance, high flexibility and high efficiency of laser processing. At present, laser technology has been popularized in the aerospace field, automobile manufacturing industry, switchgear industry, gear industry, railway locomotive manufacturing industry and metal material processing industry

I. characteristics and application of laser cutting

laser cutting is the most widely used laser processing technology in various countries at present, and it is used in many fields abroad For example, both automobile manufacturing and machine tool manufacturing use laser cutting to process sheet metal parts. With the improvement of beam quality of high-power laser, the range of laser cutting processing objects is wide It includes almost all metal and non-metallic materials. For example, R can use laser to cut complex three-dimensional parts of materials with high hardness, high brittleness and high melting point, which is the advantage of laser cutting

the main advantages of laser cutting

1 Laser cutting is not connected, but how is the metallographic analysis system installed with contact optical thermal processing, Known as "a universal tool that never wears out" "The workpiece can be closely arranged or nested in any form, so that the raw materials can be fully utilized. Due to the non-contact processing, the processed parts have no deformation.

2. The efficiency of laser cutting is high. Take 1 MM1, ball screw: the lead screw currently used by the electronic universal experimental machine, including the aluminum alloy plate with the thickness of ball screw and trapezoidal lead screw, as an example, the cutting speed can reach 40 m/min. the high efficiency makes the processing cost of a single piece increase exponentially Lower or even lower than traditional processing methods

3. Laser cutting does not require knives and molds. Under the control of computer, the flexible machining of plate and shell parts with arbitrary shape in two and three dimensions can be realized directly It is especially suitable for the processing of multi variety and small batch rice metal parts in the research and development stage of new products, which can greatly shorten the production cycle by eliminating the high cost of mold design and manufacturing

4. The slit of laser cutting is very small, and the slit is generally 0 Between 4 mm. The cut is smooth and burr free, and it can even directly process the finished spur gear for transmission with a certain accuracy

III. characteristics and application of laser welding

laser welding is a high-speed, non-contact and minimal deformation welding method, which is very suitable for large and continuous processing. With the development of laser equipment and universal experimental machine technology, the ability of laser welding is also increasing. At present, 4kw laser is used to weld 1mm plates, and the welding speed is as high as 20 m/min, such as the splicing and welding of large plates at the bottom of car boxes in the automotive industry. There are two ways of laser welding: conduction welding and penetration welding. At present, penetration welding is the main laser application in the world. Laser welding is one of the important aspects of lf2700ha technology application in laser material processing

IV. advantages of laser welding

Wuhan farilai company was the first to win the title of "national Laser Laboratory". Compared with other welding technologies, its laser welding machine has the following main advantages:

1. Laser welding speed is fast, the depth width ratio of weld is large (up to), and the deformation is small

2. It is very suitable for the processing of precision parts, box parts and weldments with sealing requirements. After the laser beam is gathered, a small spot can be obtained and can be accurately positioned It can be applied to mass automatic production Not only the production efficiency is greatly improved, but also the heat affected zone is small and the welding spot is pollution-free, which greatly improves the quality of welding

3. The mechanical properties of laser weld are good. Generally, the mechanical properties of weld are stronger than that of base metal

4. There is no need for shielding or vacuum environment during welding, which is of great significance for industrial scale production

5. Through new processes and technologies such as laser wire feeding welding and laser powder feeding welding, the industrialization application of laser has been realized, and the application field of laser welding has been expanded.

6. Inaccessible parts can be welded, and non-contact long-distance welding is implemented. Especially in recent years, optical fiber transmission technology has been used in YAG laser processing technology, which makes laser welding technology more widely promoted and applied

in a word, laser welding has the following advantages: high strength and long life: high welding speed and efficiency, simple lap joint process, low scrap rate and low positioning accuracy. It is suitable for industrialized production and is mainly used in military enterprises, food industry, chemical industry and petrochemical industry

v Typical applications

1. Application of heat exchanger laser welding technology

laser welding has been widely used in the heat exchanger industry for its high reliability and efficiency. There are many problems in the product R of heat exchanger industry, such as multiple welds, complex structure and poor working environment, which restrict the development of products. The successful application of laser welding technology in this industry not only improves the competitiveness of products, but also greatly reduces the manufacturing cost and production cycle. Foreign related products have been widely used on a large scale

2. Application of laser welding in the switchgear industry

high voltage SF6 switchgear is the leading product in the high voltage switchgear industry. This product requires reliable sealing in the natural environment for more than 30 years. For such large box parts, the traditional welding method not only faces the problems of deformation and poor air tightness after processing, but also faces the low processing efficiency High cost and many other problems. The three-dimensional laser processing machine tool with modular design can realize the laser welding task of the switch box with curved surface

special welding power control options, weld tracking system, programmable protective gas system and laser wire feeding welding device make the welding quality fully meet the requirements of mass industrialization. The adoption of three-dimensional programming software not only greatly improves the efficiency, but also minimizes the scrap rate. Now the world's famous high-voltage switch manufacturers use the three-dimensional laser processing equipment of tongkuai company to cut and weld the corresponding parts. For example, AUMA Garbo, abb and Siemens in Europe all use tongkuai's three-dimensional equipment for high-voltage SF6. Cutting and welding of electrical cabinet box. In the near future, users in the switching industry will also carry out such applications in China

3. The application of laser welding in gear processing

the process of laser welding gear has fundamentally changed the traditional design and manufacturing concept, providing a better economic ratio and a more compact structure for the processing of gear box components. Using the laser welding gear process, the whole ring-shaped long gear ring needs to be machined first, and then cut into several gear rings Then they are welded on the transmission shaft according to the requirements of the gearbox

laser processing technology has been widely used in many fields. With the continuous deepening of the research on laser processing technology, equipment and technology, it will have a broader application prospect. (end)

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